robotic AI hands creating a pink origami figure

Human Creativity and AI - a growing conflict

As AI continues its meteoric rise, its collision with human creativity across various industries has sparked intricate legal dilemmas. The recent case involving the author Jane Friedman’s AI-generated books on Amazon serves as a poignant example of the complex legal landscape that encompasses literature, music, and art.



The proliferation of artificial intelligence (AI) in creative industries has redefined the boundaries of human creativity, setting the stage for intricate legal quandaries. The recent incident involving AI-generated books attributed to Jane Friedman on Amazon serves as a poignant illustration of the challenges that emerge at the intersection of AI and human creativity. In this article, we delve into the multifaceted legal issues that span literature, music, and art, as AI continues to reshape these domains.


AI and Literature: Copyright, Originality, and Plagiarism

The rise of AI-generated content has ignited debates over copyright, originality, and plagiarism in literature. The case involving Jane Friedman’s AI-authored books underscores the complexity of these issues.

With AI seamlessly mimicking human writing styles, the task of defining copyright boundaries becomes even more intricate. Moreover, finding the delicate balance between safeguarding AI-generated works and preserving authors’ rights requires a highly nuanced legal approach. This approach must acknowledge the distinct contributions arising from both human and AI creativity.

The direct challenge that AI presents to the conventional concept of originality becomes increasingly apparent through its remarkable ability to replicate established styles. Within this context, the role of legal interpretation becomes particularly pronounced. It must meticulously differentiate between AI-produced works that genuinely exude originality and those that merely replicate pre-existing content. This intricate task further underscores the pressing need for the establishment of a robust legal framework. Such a framework should not only champion authors’ rights but also actively nurture an environment that effectively encourages and facilitates technological innovation.

As the realm of AI-generated content continues to expand, it inevitably introduces new layers to the ongoing discussions concerning plagiarism. The focal point has now shifted towards the vital task of accurately identifying instances where AI replicates pre-existing works, as opposed to generating genuinely transformative content. Consequently, the evolution of existing legal frameworks becomes paramount. This evolution, in turn, ensures the development of mechanisms that can adeptly detect instances of AI-induced plagiarism. This, of course, functions as a vital safeguard to protect authors’ reputation. Simultaneously, it also affirms the significant creative influence that AI brings to the broader creative landscape.


AI in the Music Industry: Remixes, Sampling, and Fair Use

AI’s emergence in the music industry triggers complex legal considerations, especially concerning remixes, sampling, and fair use. AI challenges established copyright norms as it redefines transformation, prompting a reevaluation of standards to accommodate AI’s creative role while preserving original works.

The application of AI in music production raises questions about sampling and legality. Clearly defined legal guidelines are imperative to differentiate AI-generated compositions and sampled segments, ensuring fairness to original creators and promoting creative exploration.

The fusion of AI and music brings new complexities to fair use. AI blurs the line between changing something a lot and copying without permission. Laws need to change to fit AI’s possibilities while still respecting copyrights. Making rules to protect creators’ rights and encourage new AI-made content is important. This helps human creativity and technology work well together.


AI and Art: Authenticity, Attribution, and Creative Intent

AI’s integration into visual art raises complex legal questions around authenticity, attribution, and creative intent. Creating a robust legal framework becomes crucial to navigate these intricacies.

AI-generated art challenges conventional authenticity standards. Establishing origin and authorship of AI-created pieces becomes vital. Legal mechanisms to verify AI art’s origin and authenticate creator involvement ensure transparency and art market integrity.

Determining AI’s role versus human input in art creation introduces nuanced legal issues. Defining attribution within legal frameworks while safeguarding human contributions acknowledges AI’s collaboration while preserving creators’ rights.

Balancing AI’s role and artists’ creative intent requires legal considerations. Addressing how AI enhances artists’ visions without distorting them ensures creative authenticity. Protecting artists’ control over the final output safeguards their expression.

AI-generated art tests conventional artistic rights. Adapting legal frameworks to cover derivative works, resale rights, and fair compensation for both human and AI creators is essential.

AI’s impact on art necessitates a comprehensive legal framework addressing authenticity, attribution, and intent. Such a framework accommodates the nuanced interplay between artists and AI, preserving creative essence and fostering a harmonious coexistence of AI-driven and traditional artistic expression.


Ethical and Moral Rights: Defining Human Creativity

The integration of AI into creative processes has given rise to complex ethical and moral considerations that demand a redefinition of human creativity and authorship. As AI generates content that mimics human work, questions about the essence of creativity, the role of the creator, and the ethical responsibilities associated with AI-generated works have come to the forefront.

1. Human-Centric Creativity: The advent of AI-generated art, music, literature, and more challenges the long-held notion of human-centred creativity. Ethical debates arise concerning the distinction between human-generated and AI-generated content. Defining creativity in an era where AI can replicate human styles prompts a deeper examination of the intrinsic aspects of human expression that make it distinct.

2. Authorship and Originality: AI-generated content raises questions about authorship and originality. How should the contributions of AI algorithms be recognised? Should AI-generated content be considered original, derivative, or a collaboration between human and machine? Addressing these questions requires revisiting copyright and intellectual property norms to acknowledge the multifaceted nature of content creation.

3. Ethical Attribution and Responsibility: As AI-generated content becomes more prevalent, attributing creative works to their true authors becomes complicated. Ethical responsibility extends not only to crediting human creators but also to understanding and disclosing AI involvement. Striking a balance between acknowledging AI’s role and respecting human ingenuity is crucial in maintaining ethical integrity.

4. Cultural Impact: AI’s ability to generate content in various styles and genres raises questions about cultural impact and appropriation. Defining the ethical boundaries of AI-generated content’s engagement with cultural norms, heritage, and sensitivities becomes a priority to avoid unintentional cultural insensitivity or misappropriation.

5. Human Oversight and Control: The ethical use of AI in creative fields demands human oversight and control. Establishing guidelines for the ethical use of AI tools, ensuring transparency in AI’s involvement, and safeguarding creative intent are essential steps to prevent ethical dilemmas and maintain artistic integrity.



The Jane Friedman incident serves as a microcosm of the profound legal challenges posed by AI-generated content across literature, music, and art. As AI’s role in creative industries continues to evolve, legal frameworks must navigate complex issues of copyright, originality, attribution, and ethical considerations. Striking the right balance between technological advancement and the preservation of human creativity requires an interdisciplinary legal approach that addresses the nuances of each creative sector.


Interested in learning more about the growing concerns of AI? Check out our post on granting legal rights to AI.

robot hand and human hand holding a holographic justice scale

E-Discovery Automation: A powerful advancement for legal professionals

In today's fast-paced legal landscape, the evolution of electronic discovery (e-discovery) from manual to automated processes has become a game-changer for legal professionals. Advanced technologies such as TAR, ML, and NLP have transformed the way ESI is managed, offering increased efficiency, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness in e-discovery automation.


The legal industry has undergone a remarkable evolution in the field of electronic discovery (e-discovery), particularly with the transition from manual processes to automation. This transformation has been fuelled by advanced technologies such as Technology Assisted Review (TAR), Machine Learning (ML), and Natural Language Processing (NLP), which have revolutionised how electronically stored information (ESI) is managed and analysed. This article explores the historical context, challenges, and opportunities that have shaped e-discovery automation. Furthermore, it discusses the significance of Casedo, an innovative e-discovery software, in driving this transformation.

The Early Days of E-Discovery

In the early stages of e-discovery, legal professionals faced the arduous task of manually sifting through vast volumes of ESI to identify and present relevant evidence in litigation cases. This labour-intensive process was not only time-consuming but also susceptible to human errors and inefficiencies. As digitalisation rapidly increased the amount of electronic data generated, it became evident that traditional manual review methods were inadequate for handling the sheer volume and complexity of ESI.

Advancements in E-Discovery Automation

The advancements in e-discovery automation have been a driving force behind the transformation of the legal industry. Technology Assisted Review (TAR) has emerged as a pivotal tool, enabling legal professionals to harness the power of machine learning algorithms to categorise and prioritise documents based on relevance. TAR's ability to "learn" from human decisions during the review process ensures continuous improvement in accuracy and efficiency over time. Machine Learning (ML) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) have further augmented e-discovery automation by enhancing data analysis and understanding. ML algorithms can recognise patterns and trends within ESI, making it easier to identify key documents and potential case-related insights. NLP, on the other hand, enables the interpretation of unstructured text data, including emails, contracts, and social media content, streamlining the extraction of crucial information from vast amounts of text. Additionally, e-discovery automation tools have evolved to handle diverse data sources and formats, from traditional documents to more complex data types like audio, video, and social media interactions. This versatility allows legal professionals to conduct comprehensive and efficient discovery processes, even when dealing with data from multiple channels and platforms.

Challenges of E-Discovery Automation

1. Ethical and Legal Implications: The application of advanced technologies like TAR, ML, and NLP raises ethical concerns related to transparency, bias, and fairness in decision-making. Ensuring that automated systems do not unintentionally perpetuate existing biases or discriminate against certain individuals or groups is a pressing challenge. Legal professionals must be vigilant in mitigating potential risks to maintain the integrity of the discovery process.

2. Data Security and Privacy: With automation comes the need to handle vast amounts of sensitive and confidential data. Ensuring robust data security measures and compliance with privacy regulations becomes paramount. Legal teams must be proactive in safeguarding client data, as any breach could have severe consequences, including legal and reputational damage.

3. Integration and Adaptation: Integrating e-discovery automation tools seamlessly into existing legal workflows requires careful planning and adaptation. Legal professionals may face resistance to change, and training personnel to effectively utilise these technologies can be time-consuming and resource-intensive. Overcoming these barriers demands a well-defined strategy for successful implementation.

4. Cross-Border Data Transfer: In an increasingly globalised legal landscape, cross-border data transfers are common. However, complying with international data protection laws and navigating potential conflicts between different jurisdictions can pose intricate challenges. Legal teams must remain well-informed on data privacy regulations worldwide to avoid legal pitfalls.

Opportunities of E-Discovery Automation

1. Efficiency and Cost Savings: E-discovery automation substantially reduces the time and effort required for document review, leading to significant cost savings for clients and law firms. Automated systems can handle vast volumes of data in a fraction of the time it would take for manual review, enabling legal professionals to focus on higher-value tasks.

2. Enhanced Decision-Making: Leveraging advanced technologies empowers legal professionals to make well-informed decisions based on comprehensive data analysis. ML algorithms can identify patterns and trends within ESI, providing valuable insights that could otherwise go unnoticed in manual review processes.

3. Seamless Collaboration and Data Sharing: Integrating e-discovery automation with other legal technologies fosters seamless collaboration among legal teams and enables efficient data sharing. This integration streamlines the discovery process and creates a cohesive workflow, enhancing productivity and collaboration within the legal ecosystem.

4. Increased Access to Justice: E-discovery automation has the potential to level the playing field and increase access to justice. By reducing the cost and time required for document review, automation can make legal services more affordable and accessible to a broader range of clients.

The relevance of Casedo in E-Discovery Automation

With its comprehensive suite of features and user-friendly interface, Casedo addresses several critical aspects of the e-discovery process, making it highly relevant in the evolving landscape of legal technology.

1. Casedo's Cutting-Edge Document Management and Review: Casedo's advanced document handling and review capabilities make it a pivotal tool in e-discovery automation. By automating the organization and indexing of documents, Casedo streamlines the discovery process, significantly reducing the need for manual intervention. Its intelligent filtering system allows legal teams to efficiently identify and prioritise relevant information, enhancing the overall efficiency of document review. With the increasing volume of electronically stored information (ESI) faced by legal professionals, Casedo's document management features prove invaluable in handling diverse data sources and formats effectively.

2. Comprehensive Evidence Management and Data Analysis: Casedo's evidence management system is crucial in the complex e-discovery landscape. It can handle diverse data types, facilitating seamless management of evidence. By centralising evidence in one platform, Casedo enables cohesive document management and data analysis, empowering legal professionals to make informed decisions during litigation.

3. Empowering Legal Professionals for Efficient Case Preparation: Casedo empowers legal professionals to prepare and present their cases effectively. By reducing the burden of manual document review and streamlining evidence management, Casedo allows legal teams to focus on strategic case preparation, leading to more compelling legal arguments and increased efficiency throughout the litigation process. The software's efficiency gains contribute to better case outcomes, enhanced collaboration, and improved client service. By leveraging Casedo's automation tools, legal professionals can enhance their efficiency, optimise document review, and navigate the complexities of e-discovery with confidence, ultimately delivering better results for their clients and streamlining the overall legal workflow in the digital era.


The evolution of e-discovery from manual processes to automation has reshaped the legal industry. Advanced technologies like TAR, ML, and NLP have streamlined tasks, improved data analysis, and enhanced the overall efficiency of the discovery process. Amidst this transformative shift, Casedo's relevance becomes evident as it provides a powerful and user-friendly software, offering cost-effectiveness and efficiency in handling the discovery process. As technology continues to progress, the future of e-discovery automation promises even more innovations and improvements, further empowering legal professionals in the digital age.

Interested in more articles relating to legal technology? Why not read our article "Legal Rights in the Metaverse"?   References

  1. "E-Discovery automation: Challenges and opportunities." Infosys BPM.
  2. "A Brief History of Electronic Discovery - Zapproved." Zapproved.
  3. "What is eDiscovery Software? | Logikcull." Logikcull.
  4. "Scientific Discoveries 2023." ARS National Program Areas.
  5. "Recent breakthroughs that could change the world." The Week.
  6. "SciTechDaily - Science, Space and Technology News 2023." SciTechDaily.

Oppenheimer is the reminder we need for nuclear energy policy developments

As "Oppenheimer" unravels the legacy of nuclear warfare, the UK takes bold steps towards a decarbonised future with an innovative focus on nuclear energy.



With the release of Christopher Nolan's film "Oppenheimer", the focus is on J. Robert Oppenheimer, the physicist known as the "father of the atomic bomb." The film showcases his role in the Manhattan Project during WWII, revealing nuclear weapons' origins and global impact.

The nuclear renaissance aligns with Great British Nuclear's (GBN) launch, echoing Oppenheimer's portrayal in Nolan's film—a reminder of nuclear technology's global significance. GBN's pursuit of small modular reactor (SMR) projects complements Oppenheimer's legacy, offering a promising future for nuclear energy in the UK. With a multi-billion-pound investment, the country accelerates its nuclear program, aiming for a sustainable, decarbonised energy future.


What is Great British Nuclear?

The Department for Energy Security and Net Zero (DESNZ) recently heralded the official launch of Great British Nuclear, a pivotal arms-length body dedicated to propelling nuclear projects across the nation. In line with the 2023 Spring Budget's commitment, GBN takes centre stage in the UK's ambition to accelerate the deployment of nuclear technology, emphasising its significance in realising the government's new nuclear program.

GBN's launch initiates an exciting phase, featuring a competition for up to £20 billion in funding for SMR nuclear projects. Emphasizing SMRs marks a transformative approach, with faster construction and lower capital expenditures compared to conventional nuclear projects. Billions of pounds of investment potential from public and private sectors highlight SMRs' strategic importance in shaping the UK's nuclear energy future.


Scope of GBN in Nuclear Energy

Great British Nuclear (GBN) will rapidly expand nuclear power through a government-led competition focused on small modular reactor (SMR) technology. This initiative could attract significant investment from both public and private sectors, enhancing energy security, affordability, and economic growth. Energy Security Secretary Grant Shapps announces GBN's pivotal role in expanding new nuclear power plants to reduce reliance on unpredictable fossil fuel imports and boost the UK economy by approximately £6 billion.

Companies can now express their interest in participating in the GBN competition, with the opportunity to secure funding for the development of SMR products. Unlike conventional reactors, SMRs are smaller, factory-made, and promise faster and more cost-effective construction of power stations.

This initiative aligns with the government's target of generating up to a quarter of the UK's electricity from domestically produced nuclear energy by 2050 and achieving competitive wholesale electricity prices in Europe while creating employment opportunities throughout the country.

In addition to supporting SMRs, the government remains dedicated to major projects such as Hinkley Point C and Sizewell C. Moreover, a grant funding package of up to £157 million has been allocated to accelerate nuclear business development and the design of advanced modular reactors and fuel.

This exciting journey into the nuclear power renaissance holds the potential to significantly boost Britain's energy capacity and fuel economic growth for decades to come. With GBN's leadership and the support of cutting-edge technologies, the UK is well-poised to assume a leading role in the global nuclear industry.

Companies can now express their interest in participating in the GBN competition, with the opportunity to secure funding for the development of SMR products. Unlike conventional reactors, SMRs are smaller, factory-made, and promise faster and more cost-effective construction of power stations.


Nuclear Energy Policy Considerations

The existing EN-6 governs nuclear policy for nationally significant infrastructure projects (NSIPs) deployable by 2025. The proposed new EN-1 will govern post-2025 nuclear applications, including large-scale nuclear, SMRs, AMRs, and fusion power plants.

Richard Griffiths of Pinsent Masons said: "We are waiting for the revised nuclear NPS, which will provide specific policy considerations for the next generation of nuclear power post-2025. Despite this, the revised EN-1 explicitly states its reliance for new nuclear projects, establishing the 'urgent need' for such technology in planning terms. This provides confidence as developers explore opportunities."

The government also published new papers on powering up Britain with positive news for future nuclear generation. Michael Freeman of Pinsent Masons said: “There has been demonstrable commitment from the UK government today to ensuring that the UK’s nuclear sector has a pivotal role to play in ensuring the UK’s energy security, and a welcome clarification on how it intends to realise its aspiration of 24GW nuclear capacity by 2050.”

According to Freeman, there was particularly positive news regarding the structure of Great British Nuclear (GBN). UK chancellor Jeremy Hunt recently announced its establishment to bring down costs and support up to one-quarter of Britain's electricity by 2050.

Freeman said: "GBN will drive new nuclear projects in the UK, operating through British Nuclear Fuels Limited. The first funding competition for SMRs will kick off in April, with selection of the best technologies for development expected in the summer."

"News of this competition is welcome, but further clarification on its scope is needed. The government should expand on its proposals quickly. GBN's precise role in funding and strategic decisions for UK SMRs needs clarity to ensure a clear route to market for developers," he said.


Interested in more legal insights and developments? Read our article on legal tech innovation!

advanced ai model touching a synthetic face mounted on a wall

Legal personhood: granting legal rights to AI

Traditionally, legal personhood was limited to humans. However, technology and knowledge advancements have sparked debates about granting rights to non-human entities like AI and robots.


Establishing Rights for AI - a practical solution or an unattainable dream?

Robots at the Bar - European Parliament Debates 'Electronic Personhood' for AI Entities

In 2017, the European Parliament adopted a resolution calling for a specific legal status for AI and robots as "electronic persons." This resolution aimed to address robots' growing significance in various industries and everyday life. It hoped to establish a framework to grant legal rights to AI that recognise their unique attributes. Moreover, the resolution acknowledged the challenges of determining the extent of legal recognition and the ethical implications involved. As a consequence, this move sparked both support and criticism from legal scholars, ethicists, and AI experts. Proponents argued that granting legal personhood to robots fosters responsible development and ensures accountability. However, critics raised concerns about potential risks and questioned the necessity of creating a distinct legal status for robots.


AI Inventor Denied: Landmark Case Rejects Patent Applications by DABUS AI System: 

In 2018, an AI system named DABUS filed two patent applications for innovations in the field of food containers and devices for attracting enhanced attention (Thaler v Commissioner of Patents [2021] FCAFC 185). These applications were filed in various jurisdictions worldwide, raising the fundamental question of whether an AI system could be recognised as an inventor and consequently obtain patent rights.

However, the patent offices in multiple countries rejected the applications, asserting that the inventor must be a natural person or a legal entity. This rejection brought to light the issue of legal personhood for AI systems and its implications for intellectual property laws. As a result, the case prompted discussions on how to attribute authorship or ownership of AI creations.

In response, legal scholars and patent experts engaged in lively debates about the attribution of intellectual property rights to AI-generated works. While some argued that recognising AI as inventors would incentivise innovation, others expressed caution, fearing that it might undermine the principles of invention and ownership by attributing them to non-human entities.


Ethical dilemmas of granting legal rights to AI

The preceding cases and debates underscore the complex nature of the legal personhood discussion for non-human entities. Additionally, as technology advances, the legal and ethical implications of extending rights to AI and robots will remain at the forefront of legal discourse. This necessitates comprehensive analysis and thoughtful consideration to strike a balance between innovation and ethical responsibility.

Consequently, this raises profound ethical questions and liability concerns that necessitate careful consideration:

  1. Determining the scope of rights granted: The extent of rights that AI and robots should possess remains an open question. Should they have the same level of rights as humans, or should there be limitations to their legal standing?
  2. Defining consciousness and sentience: Recognising legal personhood for non-human entities involves grappling with the challenge of defining consciousness and sentience. Determining whether AI and robots possess these qualities becomes essential in determining their eligibility for legal recognition.
  3. Holding AI accountable: How are AI systems and robots held accountable for their actions? If these entities are recognised as legal persons, their actions may have legal consequences, and establishing mechanisms for accountability becomes crucial.
  4. Creator liability: Would creators or operators be exempt from any form of liability? The legal status of AI and robots may impact the liability of their creators or operators, and determining their responsibility becomes a complex legal task.


Academic Opinions

Legal scholars, ethicists, and AI developers offer valuable insights into the complexities of granting legal personhood to non-human entities:

  • Professor Lawrence Solum, a prominent legal scholar, advocates for a functionalist approach that could potentially justify extending personhood to AI systems (Solum, 2018). He argues that their capacity for complex decision-making, autonomous behaviour, and self-awareness could warrant legal recognition. According to Solum, AI and robots' functional attributes, not their biological nature, should determine their rights and responsibilities. This challenges traditional legal personhood concepts, embracing technology's transformative potential in reshaping the legal landscape.
  • Ethicist Wendell Wallach contrastingly emphasises a cautious approach to granting legal personhood to AI and robots, asserting that moral responsibility should be reserved exclusively for humans (Wallach & Allen, 2009). Further, Wallach cautions against absolving human creators or operators of accountability by attributing it to non-human entities. According to him, human designers should bear the consequences of AI and robots' actions. His ethical stance prioritises human moral agency and raises significant questions about the implications of granting legal personhood to non-human entities.

The interviews with experts offer diverse viewpoints, exploring ethical, philosophical, and legal aspects of AI and robot personhood. Their different perspectives enrich the ongoing debate, highlighting the need for interdisciplinary collaboration and in-depth analysis in this evolving field. As technology advances, engaging with expert insights will be crucial for a well-informed and responsible approach to the legal rights and responsibilities of non-human entities.


Speculations for the future of AI Legal Rights

  1. Could AI serve as witnesses or parties in legal disputes? For complex litigation involving technical data or evidence, AI entities could act as expert witnesses, offering unique insights. Moreover, recognising AI as legal parties in certain contexts raises questions about their representation and advocacy rights.
  1. Would the creation of AI-generated works require new intellectual property laws? The issue of ownership and attribution of AI-generated art, music, literature, and other creative output arises. Thus, crafting new legal frameworks becomes necessary to ensure fair compensation and encourage further innovation.
  1. Addressing AI-generated harm and liability in novel ways? As AI and robots integrate into society, instances of AI-generated harm may become more common. Granting legal rights to AI opens avenues for novel liability approaches, considering the roles of AI developers, manufacturers, and operators in ensuring safe and ethical AI functioning.
  1. AI and robots as consumers with legal rights? Legal personhood impacts consumer protection and product liability. Granting legal rights to AI may mean that they could be entitled to consumer rights like warranties and protections. Consequently, manufacturers and developers must consider these rights to enhance safety and product quality.



The concept of legal personhood for non-human entities remains a complex and controversial issue. Moreover, as AI and robotics continue to develop, careful consideration about granting legal rights to AI increasingly essential. Addressing these challenges will require interdisciplinary collaboration and thoughtful analysis to navigate the legal landscape of AI and robots in an ever-changing world.


Interested in delving deeper into the dynamic interaction between AI, technology and law? Check out our article on Legal Rights in the Metaverse!

Illustration of woman wearing virtual reality glasses to access in the metaverse

Legal Rights in the Metaverse

As the Metaverse continues to gain momentum, blurring the lines between the physical and digital worlds, the legal landscape faces new and unprecedented challenges in the regulation of legal rights. With this metamorphosis comes the need to understand and navigate the legal rights and responsibilities that arise within the Metaverse.


Defining the Metaverse and its impact

The Metaverse is a collective, shared virtual space that offers limitless possibilities for human interaction, commerce, and expression. However, despite its transformative nature, there is no universally accepted legal definition for the metaverse. This lack of consensus poses challenges for regulators seeking to address the unique legal implications of this virtual frontier and develop specific legal rights in relation to activities taking place in the realm of the Metaverse.


Virtual Property and Digital Assets in the Metaverse

Within the Metaverse, users can acquire, trade, and own virtual properties and digital assets, ranging from virtual real estate to digital art and items. The concept of virtual property ownership has sparked legal debates regarding the extent of user rights and the enforceability of digital asset ownership.

For instance, the case of Biggs v. Linden Research Inc. highlighted the issue of virtual property rights within Second Life's terms of service. The court's ruling recognised limited property rights for users over digital objects they acquired or designed. This landmark case sets a precedent for considering virtual property rights and their potential legal implications.

The question of virtual property rights challenges traditional notions of property law. Courts must grapple with distinguishing virtual property from physical property and determine the scope of users' rights over digital assets. Applying property law principles to virtual environments requires thoughtful analysis to strike a balance between user autonomy and the platform's terms of service.


Jurisdictional Complexities in the Metaverse

The Metaverse's borderless and decentralised nature raises significant jurisdictional challenges. Participants from different countries, each with their distinct legal systems, actively engage within this digital space. Determining which jurisdiction's laws apply to metaverse activities can be complex and ambiguous.

Blumenthal v. Drudge exemplifies the complexities of jurisdiction in the digital realm. This case involved a U.S.-based internet service provider claiming immunity under the Communications Decency Act. The court faced the challenge of applying laws to activities taking place in a virtual environment with no physical boundaries.

Jurisdictional complexities within the metaverse present a paradigm shift in traditional conflict of legal rights. Courts must address questions of territoriality, applicable law, and enforcement in a setting where geographical borders have little relevance. Crafting innovative legal approaches to address these jurisdictional challenges is imperative to ensure fair and efficient dispute resolution.


Legal Rights Relating to Smart Contracts and Autonomous Agents

The Metaverse's reliance on blockchain technology has given rise to smart contracts, automated agreements executed without intermediaries. These contracts raise questions about their enforceability and recognition under traditional contract law.

To address these concerns, legal practitioners and lawmakers must consider the implications of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act [1] and other relevant legislation. Understanding the legal treatment of smart contracts is essential to ensure the validity and enforceability of these automated agreements.

Smart contracts present a novel legal challenge as they operate autonomously based on predefined code. Courts must interpret the parties' intentions, which are embedded in the code, and determine the contractual obligations. Analysing the enforceability and legal recognition of smart contracts requires a sophisticated understanding of contract law principles in a digital context.

Moreover, the emergence of virtual autonomous agents, such as AI-powered avatars and robots, introduces novel challenges concerning legal liability in case of disputes arising from their actions [2].

As virtual autonomous agents engage in increasingly complex interactions within the Metaverse, establishing liability and accountability becomes crucial. Courts must grapple with the allocation of responsibility when AI-powered entities cause harm or engage in unlawful conduct. This requires developing a legal framework that strikes a balance between technological advancements and accountability for potential misconduct.


Legal Rights Concerning Ethical and Privacy in the Metaverse

In the Metaverse, users often share personal information and engage in various activities that may have real-life consequences. As such, ethical considerations and data privacy concerns are paramount.

Laws like the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) [3] may provide a framework for protecting users' data within the metaverse. Balancing the need for data-driven experiences with preserving privacy rights requires thoughtful legal analysis.

The Metaverse's data-driven nature raises ethical dilemmas surrounding privacy, consent, and data use. Regulators must assess the implications of data harvesting and the potential for user manipulation within virtual environments. Balancing user autonomy with data protection in the metaverse requires robust ethical analysis and the application of privacy laws to safeguard user rights. Read our article to learn more about cybersecurity threats in the evolving virtual environment.

Additionally, virtual environments may inadvertently promote discriminatory or harassing behaviours [4], necessitating ethical considerations to address such issues.


Dispute Resolution in the Metaverse

The unique characteristics of the Metaverse demand innovative dispute resolution mechanisms. Traditional legal remedies may not be well-suited for resolving disputes that arise within this virtual world.

Implementing alternative dispute resolution methods, such as virtual arbitration or mediation, could be more efficient and accessible for participants in the metaverse. Creating specialised dispute resolution frameworks for virtual environments is vital for fostering a fair and just metaverse ecosystem.

Developing dispute resolution mechanisms tailored to the metaverse requires legal creativity and forward-thinking. Implementing virtual arbitration, mediation, or AI-driven resolution tools can enhance efficiency and accessibility for resolving disputes in this digital space. Crafting a legal framework that accommodates the distinct attributes of the metaverse is essential for providing fair and just resolution to users.



As the Metaverse continues to evolve, it presents an array of intricate legal challenges that demand thoughtful and sophisticated analysis. Legal professionals must navigate the complexities surrounding virtual property, jurisdictional issues, smart contracts, ethical considerations, and dispute resolution to ensure equitable treatment for all participants in this dynamic digital realm. By referencing relevant case law, legislation, and legal opinions, legal practitioners can develop robust legal frameworks that protect users' rights and promote the responsible growth of the metaverse.


Interested in more articles relating to legal technology? Why not read our article "Will the legal sector embrace Artificial Intelligence"?



  1. Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act: [Accessed 23 July 2023].
  2. European Parliament Research Service (EPRS), 'Legal Aspects of Artificial Intelligence' (2020) Study for the European Parliament, PE 634.452, [Accessed 23 July 2023].
  3. GDPR Info, 'General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)' ( [Accessed 23 July 2023].
  4. Tynes BM, Rose CA, Hiss S, Umaña-Taylor AJ, Mitchell K, Williams D. Virtual Environments, Online Racial Discrimination, and Adjustment among a Diverse, School-Based Sample of Adolescents. Int J Gaming Comput Mediat Simul. 2016;6(3):1-16. doi: 10.4018/ijgcms.2014070101. PMID: 27134698; PMCID: PMC4851344.