Man doing handstand splits

Casedo v1.10 Release Announcement

Casedo v1.10 doubles the number of file types that can be directly imported into the app and adds the Split Document by Bookmarks feature which allows bundles and meeting packs prepared as single PDFs to be broken down to their constituent parts with a single click.

Alongside various tweaks and UI improvements the extra file types and new main feature improve further the workflow benefits of using Casedo. For further details and to download the current version go to the downloads page. If you’re upgrading from an existing version of Casedo, you can follow the instructions and download the new version by going to how to upgrade to the latest Casedo.

Directly below is a recording of a briefing hosted by Ross Birkbeck which covers the core features of the new build. After that there is a breakdown of the features.

Split Document by Bookmarks

Many of our users are delivered on occasion pre-prepared ebundles and meeting packs that they need to break up for a variety of reasons. It could be because they need to add late submissions or because they need to reorganise papers such that they can do analysis and mark-up better. With a single click this feature completes in several minutes what might take several hours manually.

Graphic of the Casedo UI showing the Split Documents by Bookmark feature

When selected Casedo will create a new folder with the same name as the document, and then look for existing bookmarks.

  1. The first top tier bookmark on any page will become a new document (other top tier bookmarks on that page will remain the same)
  2. Second tier bookmarks will be promoted to top tier, third tier bookmarks to second tier and so on.

Before and after comparison of the Split Document by Bookmarks feature

If you want to see how this is feature works, take a look at one of the two videos below. The one on the right is an extended version that shows how to take the resulting collection of documents and reorganise them into a better whole, adding pagination and a table of contents.

Added file type import

To date Casedo is able to directly import PDFs (.pdf), Word documents (.doc & .docx), emails (.msg & .eml) and other Casedo casefiles (.case) directly into the desk space. Other file formats, including images needed to be saved as PDFs before they could be imported into Word.

This is no longer the case, Casedo v1.10 now allows the direct import of images (.png & .jpg/.jpeg) and text files (.txt & .rtf).

graphic illustrating file types that can be imported into casedo

With images, Casedo renders them onto a PDF A4 page and adds the file name as imported. With the txt files, Casedo takes the information given and renders it as a searchable PDF document. It should be noted that there is a known issue with the import of RTF files, more detail on this can be found in the Release Notes.

Other changes to Casedo

As noted in the Release Notes, there are other changes to the Casedo application in the new version.

  1. The Print option has been removed, leaving the Export Case to PDF feature. User feedback noted that the former was little used whilst the latter achieved both requirements. We felt having a single option added clarity to the application.
  2. The Undo Last Move feature keyboard shortcut has been changed from CTRL+Z (CMD+Z on Mac) to CTRL+SHIFT+Z (CMD+SHIFT+Z on Mac), this was done, again in response to user feedback, to lessen any confusion between Casedo’s Undo Last Move functionality and a generic Undo feature.
  3. Added View menu. We have added a new main menu, View, to give users another way to access the zoom and search functionalities and to make clear the keyboard shortcuts for those items.

Woman sitting at a desk enhancing productivity by using three computer screens.

Enhancing productivity for Barristers in the context of the wider productivity slowdown

In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the UK’s economic productivity has experienced a noticeable slump. This is also true of much of the world. There is a connection between these macro challenges and the everyday, micro challenges that we face.


I take a quick look at the parallel challenges in personal productivity amidst the distractions of the digital age. This is particularly the case in analysis and intellectual work. For Barristers this challenge is acute and, being self-employed for the most part, they are in the enviable position of being able to do something about enhancing productivity for themselves.


UK’s Economic Productivity Landscape

Recent articles (such as one in the Financial Times) reveal a continuing and concerning trend in the UK’s economic productivity. Since the 2008 financial crisis, there has been a notable lag, especially when compared to other G7 countries. Key factors contributing to this stagnation include complacency in business practices, a lack of investment in training and development, and inefficient management, in fact, the UK ranks bottom of the G7 in these areas. There are a number of reasons for these issues. I think, however, that the small choices and challenges that individuals make on a daily basis add up to a significant drag on how much we can achieve, or, in the parlance of ONS and OECD reports, our GDP per hour.


The Challenge of Personal Productivity

Cal Newport’s “Deep Work” offers valuable insights into the personal productivity challenges faced by professionals today. Newport highlights the detrimental effects of multitasking and the constant bombardment of digital distractions. For barristers, whose work demands high levels of concentration and meticulous analysis, the ability to engage in focused, uninterrupted work sessions is essential. However, the modern digital landscape often impedes this deep work, leading to reduced efficiency and effectiveness.


Drawing Parallels

Though labour market and productivity articles are always illustrated with workers in hard hats rolling steel, manufacturing makes up only around 10% of the UK economy. A large percentage of those employees will sit at screens most of the day. As such the parallels between the UK’s macroeconomic productivity issues and the micro-level challenges faced by, for example, barristers, are quite strong, I think. The distractions from digital tools, such as emails, social media, and instant messaging, can mirror the broader issues of complacency and inefficiency in economic productivity. For those sat at desks and beholden to screens (I put my hand up here too), this often translates into a fragmented workday, where attention is constantly diverted, leading to a decrease in the quality and quantity of work output.


Practical Strategies for Barristers

To combat these challenges, barristers can adopt various deep work strategies. Setting aside dedicated hours for focused work, free from digital distractions, can significantly enhance productivity. Strategies like the monastic approach, where all sources of distraction are eliminated. Also the rhythmic approach, which involves establishing regular, scheduled periods for deep work, can be particularly effective. Turning off the internet and turning to distraction-free tools that don’t constantly ping is a way of forcing focus. Casedo, for example, has been explicitly designed with this in mind, and using tools like this with a specific, methodical approach in mind, will increase deep work further.


Overcoming Challenges to Enhancing Productivity

Exploring avenues for training, development, and efficient management of resources can help decrease distraction and increase productivity. For instance, investing in legal technology and training can help realise better processes, allowing barristers to focus more on their core legal work rather than administrative tasks. It’s not just about grabbing the latest court bundle software or the like, but about finding the right tools that are flexible enough to work with your workflow. If it’s too prescriptive, you won’t use it.



It is imperative for barristers (and everyone) to address both economic and personal productivity challenges. This is needed to remain competitive and effective in the rapidly evolving digital landscape. Embracing principles of deep work and integrating them into daily practices can lead to significant improvements in focus, efficiency, and overall professional satisfaction. As we move forward, refining these strategies will be key to thriving in the demanding world of legal practice.

Durham University Mooting Society Digital Bundling Webinar

You can find more information about Casedo and the Durham University Mooting Society moots HERE.

Demystifying AI in Legal Tech: Separating Hype from Reality

The marriage of law and technology has given rise to a field known as legal tech. Within this realm, artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a promising tool. As with any emerging technology, there is a tendency for hype to overshadow reality. This article will shed light on the true applications of AI in legal tech to debunk common misconceptions and inform you about the future of technology in the legal sector.


What is AI?

In order to discuss the role of AI in legal tech, it is first important to understand exactly what AI is. In simple terms, artificial intelligence describes the simulation of human cognition by machines to perform tasks and solve problems. This involves “training” computers to learn, detect patterns, communicate, and make decisions. A notable example of an AI platform is ChatGPT, a generative AI platform that engages in conversational dialogue with users, answers questions, and can compose a variety of written content.

The Role of AI in Legal Tech

1. Document Review and Analysis

Legal professionals are often inundated with mountains of documents that require thorough review. AI-powered algorithms can help to significantly streamline this process. Using legal analytics powered by AI can help to scan and categorise documents, extract key information, and even predict the relevance of documents to a case. This not only accelerates the review process but also reduces the likelihood of errors by adding a ‘second checker’ to ensure no details are missed. 

2. Contract Analysis

The preparation and analysis of legal documents is another area in which the applications of AI can have far-reaching benefits. AI excels in parsing through complex, text-heavy legal documents such as contracts. Natural language processing (NLP) algorithms can identify critical clauses, potential risks, and anomalies, making contract analysis more efficient and accurate. This empowers lawyers to make informed decisions.


3. Legal Research

The automated nature of AI algorithms means they can swiftly comb through vast databases to locate relevant case law, statutes, and legal precedents. This aids lawyers in building stronger arguments and offering personal, nuanced advice to clients.


4. Chatbots and Client Interaction

AI-driven chatbots are revolutionising client interaction and increasing accessibility to legal services. They can provide immediate responses to common legal queries, schedule appointments, and offer preliminary advice. Furthermore, they can offer these services for a low cost.  This improves client satisfaction and frees up lawyers' time for more complex tasks.


Dispelling Misconceptions: AI as a Tool, Not a Replacement

1. Fear of Job Loss

One of the most common misconceptions is that advances in AI will reduce the need for legal professionals. In reality, AI is designed to enhance and streamline legal processes, not eliminate legal professionals. Lawyers bring the critical thinking, abstract thoughts, and creativity that AI lacks to help solve legal problems. AI's role is to assist, automate repetitive tasks, and enhance the quality of legal work.


2. Loss of Human Touch

The practice of law involves empathy, nuanced understanding, and the ability to navigate complex interpersonal dynamics. AI cannot replace the human touch required in negotiations, client counselling, and courtroom advocacy.


3. Infallibility of AI Predictions

While AI can provide valuable predictions based on data analysis, it's crucial to remember that legal cases are often unique and subject to unpredictable factors. Relying solely on AI predictions without human judgement can lead to misguided decisions.


4. Complexity of Implementation

The adoption of AI in legal tech can seem daunting due to technical complexities. However, many AI tools are designed with user-friendliness in mind. Therefore, legal professionals do not need to be AI experts to benefit from these tools.


Augmenting Human Capabilities

AI's potential in legal tech lies in its ability to amplify human capabilities. By automating routine tasks, the integration of AI allows lawyers to focus on higher-value work that requires critical thinking, creativity, and reasoning skills. Legal professionals can leverage AI insights to provide more informed advice to clients, craft stronger legal arguments, and devise innovative strategies.

The intersection of AI and legal tech is incredibly promising. However, it's essential to approach this technology with a balanced perspective, understanding its real-world applications and limitations. AI is a tool that empowers legal professionals to work smarter, faster, and more effectively, delivering better outcomes for clients and justice alike.



  1. Chakrabarti, S. and Kumar Ray, R. (2023) ‘Artificial Intelligence and The Law’, Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results [Preprint]. doi:10.47750/pnr.2023.14.S02.15.
  2. Logvinova, I. (2023) Legal innovation and generative AI: Lawyers emerging as ‘pilots,’ content creators, and legal designers, McKinsey & Company. Available at:
  3. Ai and its impact on legal technology (no date) AI and its Impact on Legal Technology | Thomson Reuters. Available at:


robotic AI hands creating a pink origami figure

Human Creativity and AI - a growing conflict

As AI continues its meteoric rise, its collision with human creativity across various industries has sparked intricate legal dilemmas. The recent case involving the author Jane Friedman's AI-generated books on Amazon serves as a poignant example of the complex legal landscape that encompasses literature, music, and art.



The proliferation of artificial intelligence (AI) in creative industries has redefined the boundaries of human creativity, setting the stage for intricate legal quandaries. The recent incident involving AI-generated books attributed to Jane Friedman on Amazon serves as a poignant illustration of the challenges that emerge at the intersection of AI and human creativity. In this article, we delve into the multifaceted legal issues that span literature, music, and art, as AI continues to reshape these domains.


AI and Literature: Copyright, Originality, and Plagiarism

The rise of AI-generated content has ignited debates over copyright, originality, and plagiarism in literature. The case involving Jane Friedman's AI-authored books underscores the complexity of these issues.

With AI seamlessly mimicking human writing styles, the task of defining copyright boundaries becomes even more intricate. Moreover, finding the delicate balance between safeguarding AI-generated works and preserving authors' rights requires a highly nuanced legal approach. This approach must acknowledge the distinct contributions arising from both human and AI creativity.

The direct challenge that AI presents to the conventional concept of originality becomes increasingly apparent through its remarkable ability to replicate established styles. Within this context, the role of legal interpretation becomes particularly pronounced. It must meticulously differentiate between AI-produced works that genuinely exude originality and those that merely replicate pre-existing content. This intricate task further underscores the pressing need for the establishment of a robust legal framework. Such a framework should not only champion authors' rights but also actively nurture an environment that effectively encourages and facilitates technological innovation.

As the realm of AI-generated content continues to expand, it inevitably introduces new layers to the ongoing discussions concerning plagiarism. The focal point has now shifted towards the vital task of accurately identifying instances where AI replicates pre-existing works, as opposed to generating genuinely transformative content. Consequently, the evolution of existing legal frameworks becomes paramount. This evolution, in turn, ensures the development of mechanisms that can adeptly detect instances of AI-induced plagiarism. This, of course, functions as a vital safeguard to protect authors' reputation. Simultaneously, it also affirms the significant creative influence that AI brings to the broader creative landscape.


AI in the Music Industry: Remixes, Sampling, and Fair Use

AI's emergence in the music industry triggers complex legal considerations, especially concerning remixes, sampling, and fair use. AI challenges established copyright norms as it redefines transformation, prompting a reevaluation of standards to accommodate AI's creative role while preserving original works.

The application of AI in music production raises questions about sampling and legality. Clearly defined legal guidelines are imperative to differentiate AI-generated compositions and sampled segments, ensuring fairness to original creators and promoting creative exploration.

The fusion of AI and music brings new complexities to fair use. AI blurs the line between changing something a lot and copying without permission. Laws need to change to fit AI's possibilities while still respecting copyrights. Making rules to protect creators' rights and encourage new AI-made content is important. This helps human creativity and technology work well together.


AI and Art: Authenticity, Attribution, and Creative Intent

AI's integration into visual art raises complex legal questions around authenticity, attribution, and creative intent. Creating a robust legal framework becomes crucial to navigate these intricacies.

AI-generated art challenges conventional authenticity standards. Establishing origin and authorship of AI-created pieces becomes vital. Legal mechanisms to verify AI art's origin and authenticate creator involvement ensure transparency and art market integrity.

Determining AI's role versus human input in art creation introduces nuanced legal issues. Defining attribution within legal frameworks while safeguarding human contributions acknowledges AI's collaboration while preserving creators' rights.

Balancing AI's role and artists' creative intent requires legal considerations. Addressing how AI enhances artists' visions without distorting them ensures creative authenticity. Protecting artists' control over the final output safeguards their expression.

AI-generated art tests conventional artistic rights. Adapting legal frameworks to cover derivative works, resale rights, and fair compensation for both human and AI creators is essential.

AI's impact on art necessitates a comprehensive legal framework addressing authenticity, attribution, and intent. Such a framework accommodates the nuanced interplay between artists and AI, preserving creative essence and fostering a harmonious coexistence of AI-driven and traditional artistic expression.


Ethical and Moral Rights: Defining Human Creativity

The integration of AI into creative processes has given rise to complex ethical and moral considerations that demand a redefinition of human creativity and authorship. As AI generates content that mimics human work, questions about the essence of creativity, the role of the creator, and the ethical responsibilities associated with AI-generated works have come to the forefront.

1. Human-Centric Creativity: The advent of AI-generated art, music, literature, and more challenges the long-held notion of human-centred creativity. Ethical debates arise concerning the distinction between human-generated and AI-generated content. Defining creativity in an era where AI can replicate human styles prompts a deeper examination of the intrinsic aspects of human expression that make it distinct.

2. Authorship and Originality: AI-generated content raises questions about authorship and originality. How should the contributions of AI algorithms be recognised? Should AI-generated content be considered original, derivative, or a collaboration between human and machine? Addressing these questions requires revisiting copyright and intellectual property norms to acknowledge the multifaceted nature of content creation.

3. Ethical Attribution and Responsibility: As AI-generated content becomes more prevalent, attributing creative works to their true authors becomes complicated. Ethical responsibility extends not only to crediting human creators but also to understanding and disclosing AI involvement. Striking a balance between acknowledging AI's role and respecting human ingenuity is crucial in maintaining ethical integrity.

4. Cultural Impact: AI's ability to generate content in various styles and genres raises questions about cultural impact and appropriation. Defining the ethical boundaries of AI-generated content's engagement with cultural norms, heritage, and sensitivities becomes a priority to avoid unintentional cultural insensitivity or misappropriation.

5. Human Oversight and Control: The ethical use of AI in creative fields demands human oversight and control. Establishing guidelines for the ethical use of AI tools, ensuring transparency in AI's involvement, and safeguarding creative intent are essential steps to prevent ethical dilemmas and maintain artistic integrity.



The Jane Friedman incident serves as a microcosm of the profound legal challenges posed by AI-generated content across literature, music, and art. As AI's role in creative industries continues to evolve, legal frameworks must navigate complex issues of copyright, originality, attribution, and ethical considerations. Striking the right balance between technological advancement and the preservation of human creativity requires an interdisciplinary legal approach that addresses the nuances of each creative sector.


Interested in learning more about the growing concerns of AI? Check out our post on granting legal rights to AI.

Unlocking the Power of Self-Discipline for Greater Achievement

Procrastination is a universal experience. Almost everyone has experienced at least one moment where they have put off an important task in favour of something more interesting, like a book, article, or video. In the worst cases, it can be in favour of simply doing nothing. However, while satisfying in the moment, acting on such impulses often leads to heightened anxiety, stress, and pressure later on. The key to breaking free from this cycle lies in self-discipline, enabling us to achieve more while reducing stress.


The Power (and Struggle) of Self-Discipline.

Self-discipline is defined as the ability to consciously resist impulses in pursuit of long-term goals. It is a highly influential characteristic in professional development and success. Research by psychologist Angela Duckworth has shown that self-discipline is a more potent predictor of academic achievement in adolescents than intelligence, significantly impacting final grades, attendance, and homework completion. Additionally, self-discipline is linked to positive career outcomes, contributing to both occupational success and satisfaction.

Self-discipline is undoubtedly important. Yet, it is a struggle for many. Research has revealed that self-control ranks low among character strengths in both adults and children, scoring 22nd out of 24 in the UK and last in the USA. Duckworth attributes this to the difficulty of balancing resources between our present desires, such as social interactions (spurring the urge to check your social media), and our future aspirations.

The ability to hone self-discipline is essential for achieving your professional goals and living up to your full potential. The good news is that self-discipline is a habit that can be cultivated over time. While it might be challenging to start, the more we practise it, the stronger and more automatic it becomes. And the stronger your self-discipline, the more you will experience changes in your professional life and mental health. 


Today we will share our favourite tricks to help you improve your self-discipline and work smarter.


1: Find What Is Tempting You and Self-Monitor

To cultivate self-discipline, it is essential to recognise that it is personal. Everyone has distinct temptations and tendencies. For example, some individuals may struggle to control their social media usage, while others may spend their time watching TV series. Identifying these barriers to self-control is a vital first step in developing strategies tailored to address your specific weak points.

Furthermore, identifying your temptations will allow you to self-monitor, tracking your behavioural patterns throughout the day. This allows you to determine whether your strategy is successful or requires refinement. 

By personalising your approach to self-discipline and self-monitoring, you lay a strong foundation, allowing you to devote your energy to effectively enhance your self-control to achieve your goals and improve your professional outcomes.


2: Look to the Future

According to Duckworth, having a goal-oriented mindset is fundamental to improving your self-control. Research studies have shown that setting specific, difficult goals enhances performance, especially when these goals are made public or shared in a group. Setting goals enables you to focus your attention on a specific outcome, and effectively allocate resources to its achievement.

Furthermore, breaking down a goal into smaller, more manageable sub-goals, has been linked to higher levels of productivity and commitment by making tasks appear more doable. This can enable you to maintain your motivation and sense of progress when working towards challenging goals. 

Once these goals are set, it is crucial to create a plan for their achievement. A proposed strategy for planning is known as mental contrasting and implementation intentions. This visualisation technique involves envisioning the positive outcomes associated with your goals and contrasting them with the current obstacles standing in your way. Through this process, you gain valuable insights that inform a detailed plan to tackle these obstacles effectively. Studies have linked employment of this strategy to significant increases in achievement and motivation.

By adopting a goal-oriented mindset and implementing strategies like mental contrasting and implementation intentions, you equip yourself with tools to overcome obstacles and achieve your professional goals. This will empower you to resist impulses and approach your work with more self-discipline. 


3: Manipulate Your Environment

Sometimes the easiest way to exercise self-discipline is to change your environment in a way that dampens a temptation. Doing this is known as a situational strategy for self-control, and is observable when someone hides their phone away at work, or puts up controls to prevent procrastinatory webpages from being accessed on their computer. In taking steps to remove the temptation from your environment, you are reducing the salience of the temptation in your mind, and minimising your impulse generation associated with low self-control. This will allow you to regulate your impulses and focus your attention on your work to achieve more


4: Practise Healthier Living

A healthy lifestyle significantly contributes to improved self-discipline. We’ve all had that day where we felt like we couldn’t think clearly due to a lack of sleep, or skipping a meal. It is in these situations where our self-control seems to diminish the most, and this is because a healthy mind is essential for mental clarity and good decision making. Therefore, regular exercise, a balanced diet, and quality sleep are all vital for enhancing self-control. This will also help you to build a foundation for better self-discipline in the future.  


5: Engage in Mindfulness

Mindfulness strengthens self-discipline by increasing self-awareness and curbing impulsivity and stress. Embrace mindful meditation to observe thoughts and emotions without judgement, fostering a calm and focused mindset. This will allow you to “surf the urge” without needing to act on your impulses. Simple deep breathing exercises serve as powerful tools to stay focused in challenging situations, empowering you to make deliberate choices rather than succumbing to distractions or negativity. By incorporating mindfulness into your daily routines, you enhance focus and self-control, reducing procrastination to pursue your long term professional goals.


As you implement these practices, you will hone your self-discipline, enabling you to achieve your full potential in your work. Remember, it's a journey of progress, not perfection, and implementing even one of these techniques will bring you one step closer to achieving your professional goals. Ready to work smarter?



  1. Duckworth, A.L. and Seligman, M.E.P. (2005) ‘Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents’, Psychological Science, 16(12), pp. 939–944. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01641.x.
  2. Choi, I. et al. (2018) ‘Comparing two roads to success: Self-control predicts achievement and positive affect predicts relationships’, Journal of Research in Personality, 76, pp. 50–63. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2018.07.001.
  3. Park, N., Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E. (2006) ‘Character strengths in fifty-Four nations and the fifty US states’, The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(3), pp. 118–129. doi:10.1080/17439760600619567.
  4. Duckworth, A.L., Milkman, K.L. and Laibson, D. (2018) ‘Beyond willpower: Strategies for reducing failures of self-control’, Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19(3), pp. 102–129. doi:10.1177/1529100618821893.
  5. Duckworth, A.L. et al. (2013) ‘From Fantasy to Action: Mental Contrasting With Implementation Intentions (MCII) Improves Academic Performance in Children’, Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4(6), pp. 745–753. doi:10.1177/1948550613476307.
  6. Duckworth, A.L., Gendler, T.S. and Gross, J.J. (2016) ‘Situational Strategies for self-control’, Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(1), pp. 35–55. doi:10.1177/1745691615623247.
  7. Savage, M., Boni, G. and Duckworth, A. (2022) The mental hacks that level up your self-control, BBC Worklife. Available at:


robot hand and human hand holding a holographic justice scale

E-Discovery Automation: A powerful advancement for legal professionals

In today's fast-paced legal landscape, the evolution of electronic discovery (e-discovery) from manual to automated processes has become a game-changer for legal professionals. Advanced technologies such as TAR, ML, and NLP have transformed the way ESI is managed, offering increased efficiency, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness in e-discovery automation.



The legal industry has undergone a remarkable evolution in the field of electronic discovery (e-discovery), particularly with the transition from manual processes to automation. This transformation has been fuelled by advanced technologies such as Technology Assisted Review (TAR), Machine Learning (ML), and Natural Language Processing (NLP), which have revolutionised how electronically stored information (ESI) is managed and analysed. This article explores the historical context, challenges, and opportunities that have shaped e-discovery automation. Furthermore, it discusses the significance of Casedo, an innovative e-discovery software, in driving this transformation.


The Early Days of E-Discovery

In the early stages of e-discovery, legal professionals faced the arduous task of manually sifting through vast volumes of ESI to identify and present relevant evidence in litigation cases. This labor-intensive process was not only time-consuming but also susceptible to human errors and inefficiencies. As digitalisation rapidly increased the amount of electronic data generated, it became evident that traditional manual review methods were inadequate for handling the sheer volume and complexity of ESI.


Advancements in E-Discovery Automation

The advancements in e-discovery automation have been a driving force behind the transformation of the legal industry. Technology Assisted Review (TAR) has emerged as a pivotal tool, enabling legal professionals to harness the power of machine learning algorithms to categorise and prioritise documents based on relevance. TAR's ability to "learn" from human decisions during the review process ensures continuous improvement in accuracy and efficiency over time.

Machine Learning (ML) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) have further augmented e-discovery automation by enhancing data analysis and understanding. ML algorithms can recognise patterns and trends within ESI, making it easier to identify key documents and potential case-related insights. NLP, on the other hand, enables the interpretation of unstructured text data, including emails, contracts, and social media content, streamlining the extraction of crucial information from vast amounts of text.

Additionally, e-discovery automation tools have evolved to handle diverse data sources and formats, from traditional documents to more complex data types like audio, video, and social media interactions. This versatility allows legal professionals to conduct comprehensive and efficient discovery processes, even when dealing with data from multiple channels and platforms.


Challenges of E-Discovery Automation

1. Ethical and Legal Implications: The application of advanced technologies like TAR, ML, and NLP raises ethical concerns related to transparency, bias, and fairness in decision-making. Ensuring that automated systems do not unintentionally perpetuate existing biases or discriminate against certain individuals or groups is a pressing challenge. Legal professionals must be vigilant in mitigating potential risks to maintain the integrity of the discovery process.

2. Data Security and Privacy: With automation comes the need to handle vast amounts of sensitive and confidential data. Ensuring robust data security measures and compliance with privacy regulations becomes paramount. Legal teams must be proactive in safeguarding client data, as any breach could have severe consequences, including legal and reputational damage.

3. Integration and Adaptation: Integrating e-discovery automation tools seamlessly into existing legal workflows requires careful planning and adaptation. Legal professionals may face resistance to change, and training personnel to effectively utilise these technologies can be time-consuming and resource-intensive. Overcoming these barriers demands a well-defined strategy for successful implementation.

4. Cross-Border Data Transfer: In an increasingly globalised legal landscape, cross-border data transfers are common. However, complying with international data protection laws and navigating potential conflicts between different jurisdictions can pose intricate challenges. Legal teams must remain well-informed on data privacy regulations worldwide to avoid legal pitfalls.


Opportunities of E-Discovery Automation

1. Efficiency and Cost Savings: E-discovery automation substantially reduces the time and effort required for document review, leading to significant cost savings for clients and law firms. Automated systems can handle vast volumes of data in a fraction of the time it would take for manual review, enabling legal professionals to focus on higher-value tasks.

2. Enhanced Decision-Making: Leveraging advanced technologies empowers legal professionals to make well-informed decisions based on comprehensive data analysis. ML algorithms can identify patterns and trends within ESI, providing valuable insights that could otherwise go unnoticed in manual review processes.

3. Seamless Collaboration and Data Sharing: Integrating e-discovery automation with other legal technologies fosters seamless collaboration among legal teams and enables efficient data sharing. This integration streamlines the discovery process and creates a cohesive workflow, enhancing productivity and collaboration within the legal ecosystem.

4. Increased Access to Justice: E-discovery automation has the potential to level the playing field and increase access to justice. By reducing the cost and time required for document review, automation can make legal services more affordable and accessible to a broader range of clients.


The relevance of Casedo in E-Discovery Automation

With its comprehensive suite of features and user-friendly interface, Casedo addresses several critical aspects of the e-discovery process, making it highly relevant in the evolving landscape of legal technology.

1. Casedo's Cutting-Edge Document Management and Review: Casedo's advanced document handling and review capabilities make it a pivotal tool in e-discovery automation. By automating the organization and indexing of documents, Casedo streamlines the discovery process, significantly reducing the need for manual intervention. Its intelligent filtering system allows legal teams to efficiently identify and prioritise relevant information, enhancing the overall efficiency of document review. With the increasing volume of electronically stored information (ESI) faced by legal professionals, Casedo's document management features prove invaluable in handling diverse data sources and formats effectively.

2. Comprehensive Evidence Management and Data Analysis: Casedo's evidence management system is crucial in the complex e-discovery landscape. It can handle diverse data types, facilitating seamless management of evidence. By centralising evidence in one platform, Casedo enables cohesive document management and data analysis, empowering legal professionals to make informed decisions during litigation.

3. Empowering Legal Professionals for Efficient Case Preparation: Casedo empowers legal professionals to prepare and present their cases effectively. By reducing the burden of manual document review and streamlining evidence management, Casedo allows legal teams to focus on strategic case preparation, leading to more compelling legal arguments and increased efficiency throughout the litigation process. The software's efficiency gains contribute to better case outcomes, enhanced collaboration, and improved client service.

By leveraging Casedo's automation tools, legal professionals can enhance their efficiency, optimise document review, and navigate the complexities of e-discovery with confidence, ultimately delivering better results for their clients and streamlining the overall legal workflow in the digital era.



The evolution of e-discovery from manual processes to automation has reshaped the legal industry. Advanced technologies like TAR, ML, and NLP have streamlined tasks, improved data analysis, and enhanced the overall efficiency of the discovery process. Amidst this transformative shift, Casedo's relevance becomes evident as it provides a powerful and user-friendly software, offering cost-effectiveness and efficiency in handling the discovery process. As technology continues to progress, the future of e-discovery automation promises even more innovations and improvements, further empowering legal professionals in the digital age.


Interested in more articles relating to legal technology? Why not read our article "Legal Rights in the Metaverse"?



  1. "E-Discovery automation: Challenges and opportunities." Infosys BPM.
  2. "A Brief History of Electronic Discovery - Zapproved." Zapproved.
  3. "What is eDiscovery Software? | Logikcull." Logikcull.
  4. "Scientific Discoveries 2023." ARS National Program Areas.
  5. "Recent breakthroughs that could change the world." The Week.
  6. "SciTechDaily - Science, Space and Technology News 2023." SciTechDaily.


Productivity Hacks to Help You Get More Out of Your Workday

In today's fast-paced world, we are constantly striving to accomplish more. However, working longer hours isn't always the answer. The key lies in knowing productivity hacks that help you work smarter, not harder.


What sets working hard apart from working efficiently?

Working hard typically means spending long hours and putting vast effort into a project. However, this does not necessarily mean you are making good use of your time, nor does it guarantee positive outcomes. When you work efficiently, you focus your energy on the highest-priority tasks and streamline your workflow to accomplish them promptly and effectively. This maximises your output while minimising your wasted time and effort. Sounds good, right?

In this article, we will share some of our favourite productivity hacks to help you make the most of your workday and achieve your goals without sacrificing your personal life or well-being.


Hack 1: Identify Your Most Productive Time

The time of day can significantly impact our energy levels and overall productivity. Understanding our body's natural rhythms can help us determine when we are most alert and focused. Everyone's productive time may vary, so it's crucial to pay attention to when you are the most energised (hint: for most, it's during the morning!). This will allow you to capitalise on your high-energy periods and tackle essential tasks that require full attention. By focusing on less demanding activities, you can also avoid wasting precious minutes during your low-energy time. Finding and utilising your productive time can increase efficiency and success, whether it's early morning, midday, or later in the evening.


Hack 2: Prioritise Your Tasks

When faced with a heavy workload, it's easy to feel overwhelmed and unsure where to start. In these cases, one of the most effective things to do is prioritising your tasks. By organising your to-do list, you ensure that you tackle the highest priority tasks first. This allows you to make progress on meaningful projects and avoid the stress and anxiety that comes with procrastination.

The Eisenhower Matrix is a handy tool that helps categorise tasks based on urgency and importance. Using this matrix, you can identify which tasks to tackle when you set up your work day. Setting clear goals and deadlines for each task is also crucial. This helps maintain your focus and motivation, knowing that you have specific targets to meet. Creating lists or using templates can make prioritisation even easier, as you can visually see and rearrange your tasks. You can attain your goals and increase your productivity by prioritising effectively.

The Eisenhower matrix – A popular prioritization framework | Spica

        Use the Eisenhower Matrix to decide which tasks to accomplish first (credit: Blaz Kos)


Hack 3: Minimise Distractions

We all know how tempting it can be to constantly check your phone for notifications while working. Such distractions significantly impact our ability to complete tasks efficiently. Turning off notifications and creating a dedicated workspace free from interruptions is helpful to combat this. You can better concentrate on your work to accomplish your goals by eliminating these distractions. Setting clear goals and deadlines for each task is also crucial, as it helps you stay motivated and ensures that you're working towards attainable objectives.


Hack 4: Manage Your Energy and Avoid Burnout

It can be difficult to continue your work when you are low on energy. While pushing ourselves to the limit is tempting, working non-stop can diminish our overall effectiveness. This is because having low energy disrupts your focus. Therefore, it's essential to listen to your body and prioritise self-care. Take regular breaks throughout the day to recharge and rejuvenate. Engage in activities that replenish your energy, such as exercise, mindfulness, or time outside. Additionally, ensure you get enough sleep each night to optimise cognitive function and maintain a healthy work-life balance. By managing your energy levels and preventing burnout, you'll sustain your productivity in the long run and be better equipped to tackle tasks with focus and efficiency.


Hack 5: Use Productivity Tools

Technology is an extremely helpful tool for streamlining your workflow and enhancing your productivity. One tool is Casedo, our user-friendly document organisation solution. With Casedo, you can effortlessly store, bundle, and mark up your documents in one workspace. This saves you time and effort, allowing you to effortlessly make sense of your documents. This software will enable you to maximise your productive time and avoid wasting minutes on disorganised tasks during your workday. It's a completely effortless way to stay organised and increase productivity.


Using a tool like Casedo can simplify and streamline your workflow

Implementing productivity hacks is essential for reducing time wastage and increasing efficiency during your workday. Start implementing these hacks and experience the freedom that comes with working smarter. Remember, the key to success is finding attainable ways to maximise productivity. Don't let deadlines and disorganisation hold you back. Work smarter and get more done!


Oppenheimer is the reminder we need for nuclear energy policy developments

As "Oppenheimer" unravels the legacy of nuclear warfare, the UK takes bold steps towards a decarbonised future with an innovative focus on nuclear energy.



With the release of Christopher Nolan's film "Oppenheimer", the focus is on J. Robert Oppenheimer, the physicist known as the "father of the atomic bomb." The film showcases his role in the Manhattan Project during WWII, revealing nuclear weapons' origins and global impact.

The nuclear renaissance aligns with Great British Nuclear's (GBN) launch, echoing Oppenheimer's portrayal in Nolan's film—a reminder of nuclear technology's global significance. GBN's pursuit of small modular reactor (SMR) projects complements Oppenheimer's legacy, offering a promising future for nuclear energy in the UK. With a multi-billion-pound investment, the country accelerates its nuclear program, aiming for a sustainable, decarbonised energy future.


What is Great British Nuclear?

The Department for Energy Security and Net Zero (DESNZ) recently heralded the official launch of Great British Nuclear, a pivotal arms-length body dedicated to propelling nuclear projects across the nation. In line with the 2023 Spring Budget's commitment, GBN takes centre stage in the UK's ambition to accelerate the deployment of nuclear technology, emphasising its significance in realising the government's new nuclear program.

GBN's launch initiates an exciting phase, featuring a competition for up to £20 billion in funding for SMR nuclear projects. Emphasizing SMRs marks a transformative approach, with faster construction and lower capital expenditures compared to conventional nuclear projects. Billions of pounds of investment potential from public and private sectors highlight SMRs' strategic importance in shaping the UK's nuclear energy future.


Scope of GBN in Nuclear Energy

Great British Nuclear (GBN) will rapidly expand nuclear power through a government-led competition focused on small modular reactor (SMR) technology. This initiative could attract significant investment from both public and private sectors, enhancing energy security, affordability, and economic growth. Energy Security Secretary Grant Shapps announces GBN's pivotal role in expanding new nuclear power plants to reduce reliance on unpredictable fossil fuel imports and boost the UK economy by approximately £6 billion.

Companies can now express their interest in participating in the GBN competition, with the opportunity to secure funding for the development of SMR products. Unlike conventional reactors, SMRs are smaller, factory-made, and promise faster and more cost-effective construction of power stations.

This initiative aligns with the government's target of generating up to a quarter of the UK's electricity from domestically produced nuclear energy by 2050 and achieving competitive wholesale electricity prices in Europe while creating employment opportunities throughout the country.

In addition to supporting SMRs, the government remains dedicated to major projects such as Hinkley Point C and Sizewell C. Moreover, a grant funding package of up to £157 million has been allocated to accelerate nuclear business development and the design of advanced modular reactors and fuel.

This exciting journey into the nuclear power renaissance holds the potential to significantly boost Britain's energy capacity and fuel economic growth for decades to come. With GBN's leadership and the support of cutting-edge technologies, the UK is well-poised to assume a leading role in the global nuclear industry.

Companies can now express their interest in participating in the GBN competition, with the opportunity to secure funding for the development of SMR products. Unlike conventional reactors, SMRs are smaller, factory-made, and promise faster and more cost-effective construction of power stations.


Nuclear Energy Policy Considerations

The existing EN-6 governs nuclear policy for nationally significant infrastructure projects (NSIPs) deployable by 2025. The proposed new EN-1 will govern post-2025 nuclear applications, including large-scale nuclear, SMRs, AMRs, and fusion power plants.

Richard Griffiths of Pinsent Masons said: "We are waiting for the revised nuclear NPS, which will provide specific policy considerations for the next generation of nuclear power post-2025. Despite this, the revised EN-1 explicitly states its reliance for new nuclear projects, establishing the 'urgent need' for such technology in planning terms. This provides confidence as developers explore opportunities."

The government also published new papers on powering up Britain with positive news for future nuclear generation. Michael Freeman of Pinsent Masons said: “There has been demonstrable commitment from the UK government today to ensuring that the UK’s nuclear sector has a pivotal role to play in ensuring the UK’s energy security, and a welcome clarification on how it intends to realise its aspiration of 24GW nuclear capacity by 2050.”

According to Freeman, there was particularly positive news regarding the structure of Great British Nuclear (GBN). UK chancellor Jeremy Hunt recently announced its establishment to bring down costs and support up to one-quarter of Britain's electricity by 2050.

Freeman said: "GBN will drive new nuclear projects in the UK, operating through British Nuclear Fuels Limited. The first funding competition for SMRs will kick off in April, with selection of the best technologies for development expected in the summer."

"News of this competition is welcome, but further clarification on its scope is needed. The government should expand on its proposals quickly. GBN's precise role in funding and strategic decisions for UK SMRs needs clarity to ensure a clear route to market for developers," he said.


Interested in more legal insights and developments? Read our article on legal tech innovation!

advanced ai model touching a synthetic face mounted on a wall

Legal personhood: granting legal rights to AI

Traditionally, legal personhood was limited to humans. However, technology and knowledge advancements have sparked debates about granting rights to non-human entities like AI and robots.


Establishing Rights for AI - a practical solution or an unattainable dream?

Robots at the Bar - European Parliament Debates 'Electronic Personhood' for AI Entities

In 2017, the European Parliament adopted a resolution calling for a specific legal status for AI and robots as "electronic persons." This resolution aimed to address robots' growing significance in various industries and everyday life. It hoped to establish a framework to grant legal rights to AI that recognise their unique attributes. Moreover, the resolution acknowledged the challenges of determining the extent of legal recognition and the ethical implications involved. As a consequence, this move sparked both support and criticism from legal scholars, ethicists, and AI experts. Proponents argued that granting legal personhood to robots fosters responsible development and ensures accountability. However, critics raised concerns about potential risks and questioned the necessity of creating a distinct legal status for robots.


AI Inventor Denied: Landmark Case Rejects Patent Applications by DABUS AI System: 

In 2018, an AI system named DABUS filed two patent applications for innovations in the field of food containers and devices for attracting enhanced attention (Thaler v Commissioner of Patents [2021] FCAFC 185). These applications were filed in various jurisdictions worldwide, raising the fundamental question of whether an AI system could be recognised as an inventor and consequently obtain patent rights.

However, the patent offices in multiple countries rejected the applications, asserting that the inventor must be a natural person or a legal entity. This rejection brought to light the issue of legal personhood for AI systems and its implications for intellectual property laws. As a result, the case prompted discussions on how to attribute authorship or ownership of AI creations.

In response, legal scholars and patent experts engaged in lively debates about the attribution of intellectual property rights to AI-generated works. While some argued that recognising AI as inventors would incentivise innovation, others expressed caution, fearing that it might undermine the principles of invention and ownership by attributing them to non-human entities.


Ethical dilemmas of granting legal rights to AI

The preceding cases and debates underscore the complex nature of the legal personhood discussion for non-human entities. Additionally, as technology advances, the legal and ethical implications of extending rights to AI and robots will remain at the forefront of legal discourse. This necessitates comprehensive analysis and thoughtful consideration to strike a balance between innovation and ethical responsibility.

Consequently, this raises profound ethical questions and liability concerns that necessitate careful consideration:

  1. Determining the scope of rights granted: The extent of rights that AI and robots should possess remains an open question. Should they have the same level of rights as humans, or should there be limitations to their legal standing?
  2. Defining consciousness and sentience: Recognising legal personhood for non-human entities involves grappling with the challenge of defining consciousness and sentience. Determining whether AI and robots possess these qualities becomes essential in determining their eligibility for legal recognition.
  3. Holding AI accountable: How are AI systems and robots held accountable for their actions? If these entities are recognised as legal persons, their actions may have legal consequences, and establishing mechanisms for accountability becomes crucial.
  4. Creator liability: Would creators or operators be exempt from any form of liability? The legal status of AI and robots may impact the liability of their creators or operators, and determining their responsibility becomes a complex legal task.


Academic Opinions

Legal scholars, ethicists, and AI developers offer valuable insights into the complexities of granting legal personhood to non-human entities:

  • Professor Lawrence Solum, a prominent legal scholar, advocates for a functionalist approach that could potentially justify extending personhood to AI systems (Solum, 2018). He argues that their capacity for complex decision-making, autonomous behaviour, and self-awareness could warrant legal recognition. According to Solum, AI and robots' functional attributes, not their biological nature, should determine their rights and responsibilities. This challenges traditional legal personhood concepts, embracing technology's transformative potential in reshaping the legal landscape.
  • Ethicist Wendell Wallach contrastingly emphasises a cautious approach to granting legal personhood to AI and robots, asserting that moral responsibility should be reserved exclusively for humans (Wallach & Allen, 2009). Further, Wallach cautions against absolving human creators or operators of accountability by attributing it to non-human entities. According to him, human designers should bear the consequences of AI and robots' actions. His ethical stance prioritises human moral agency and raises significant questions about the implications of granting legal personhood to non-human entities.

The interviews with experts offer diverse viewpoints, exploring ethical, philosophical, and legal aspects of AI and robot personhood. Their different perspectives enrich the ongoing debate, highlighting the need for interdisciplinary collaboration and in-depth analysis in this evolving field. As technology advances, engaging with expert insights will be crucial for a well-informed and responsible approach to the legal rights and responsibilities of non-human entities.


Speculations for the future of AI Legal Rights

  1. Could AI serve as witnesses or parties in legal disputes? For complex litigation involving technical data or evidence, AI entities could act as expert witnesses, offering unique insights. Moreover, recognising AI as legal parties in certain contexts raises questions about their representation and advocacy rights.
  1. Would the creation of AI-generated works require new intellectual property laws? The issue of ownership and attribution of AI-generated art, music, literature, and other creative output arises. Thus, crafting new legal frameworks becomes necessary to ensure fair compensation and encourage further innovation.
  1. Addressing AI-generated harm and liability in novel ways? As AI and robots integrate into society, instances of AI-generated harm may become more common. Granting legal rights to AI opens avenues for novel liability approaches, considering the roles of AI developers, manufacturers, and operators in ensuring safe and ethical AI functioning.
  1. AI and robots as consumers with legal rights? Legal personhood impacts consumer protection and product liability. Granting legal rights to AI may mean that they could be entitled to consumer rights like warranties and protections. Consequently, manufacturers and developers must consider these rights to enhance safety and product quality.



The concept of legal personhood for non-human entities remains a complex and controversial issue. Moreover, as AI and robotics continue to develop, careful consideration about granting legal rights to AI increasingly essential. Addressing these challenges will require interdisciplinary collaboration and thoughtful analysis to navigate the legal landscape of AI and robots in an ever-changing world.


Interested in delving deeper into the dynamic interaction between AI, technology and law? Check out our article on Legal Rights in the Metaverse!

Illustration of woman wearing virtual reality glasses to access in the metaverse

Legal Rights in the Metaverse

As the Metaverse continues to gain momentum, blurring the lines between the physical and digital worlds, the legal landscape faces new and unprecedented challenges in the regulation of legal rights. With this metamorphosis comes the need to understand and navigate the legal rights and responsibilities that arise within the Metaverse.


Defining the Metaverse and its impact

The Metaverse is a collective, shared virtual space that offers limitless possibilities for human interaction, commerce, and expression. However, despite its transformative nature, there is no universally accepted legal definition for the metaverse. This lack of consensus poses challenges for regulators seeking to address the unique legal implications of this virtual frontier and develop specific legal rights in relation to activities taking place in the realm of the Metaverse.


Virtual Property and Digital Assets in the Metaverse

Within the Metaverse, users can acquire, trade, and own virtual properties and digital assets, ranging from virtual real estate to digital art and items. The concept of virtual property ownership has sparked legal debates regarding the extent of user rights and the enforceability of digital asset ownership.

For instance, the case of Biggs v. Linden Research Inc. highlighted the issue of virtual property rights within Second Life's terms of service. The court's ruling recognised limited property rights for users over digital objects they acquired or designed. This landmark case sets a precedent for considering virtual property rights and their potential legal implications.

The question of virtual property rights challenges traditional notions of property law. Courts must grapple with distinguishing virtual property from physical property and determine the scope of users' rights over digital assets. Applying property law principles to virtual environments requires thoughtful analysis to strike a balance between user autonomy and the platform's terms of service.


Jurisdictional Complexities in the Metaverse

The Metaverse's borderless and decentralised nature raises significant jurisdictional challenges. Participants from different countries, each with their distinct legal systems, actively engage within this digital space. Determining which jurisdiction's laws apply to metaverse activities can be complex and ambiguous.

Blumenthal v. Drudge exemplifies the complexities of jurisdiction in the digital realm. This case involved a U.S.-based internet service provider claiming immunity under the Communications Decency Act. The court faced the challenge of applying laws to activities taking place in a virtual environment with no physical boundaries.

Jurisdictional complexities within the metaverse present a paradigm shift in traditional conflict of legal rights. Courts must address questions of territoriality, applicable law, and enforcement in a setting where geographical borders have little relevance. Crafting innovative legal approaches to address these jurisdictional challenges is imperative to ensure fair and efficient dispute resolution.


Legal Rights Relating to Smart Contracts and Autonomous Agents

The Metaverse's reliance on blockchain technology has given rise to smart contracts, automated agreements executed without intermediaries. These contracts raise questions about their enforceability and recognition under traditional contract law.

To address these concerns, legal practitioners and lawmakers must consider the implications of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act [1] and other relevant legislation. Understanding the legal treatment of smart contracts is essential to ensure the validity and enforceability of these automated agreements.

Smart contracts present a novel legal challenge as they operate autonomously based on predefined code. Courts must interpret the parties' intentions, which are embedded in the code, and determine the contractual obligations. Analysing the enforceability and legal recognition of smart contracts requires a sophisticated understanding of contract law principles in a digital context.

Moreover, the emergence of virtual autonomous agents, such as AI-powered avatars and robots, introduces novel challenges concerning legal liability in case of disputes arising from their actions [2].

As virtual autonomous agents engage in increasingly complex interactions within the Metaverse, establishing liability and accountability becomes crucial. Courts must grapple with the allocation of responsibility when AI-powered entities cause harm or engage in unlawful conduct. This requires developing a legal framework that strikes a balance between technological advancements and accountability for potential misconduct.


Legal Rights Concerning Ethical and Privacy in the Metaverse

In the Metaverse, users often share personal information and engage in various activities that may have real-life consequences. As such, ethical considerations and data privacy concerns are paramount.

Laws like the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) [3] may provide a framework for protecting users' data within the metaverse. Balancing the need for data-driven experiences with preserving privacy rights requires thoughtful legal analysis.

The Metaverse's data-driven nature raises ethical dilemmas surrounding privacy, consent, and data use. Regulators must assess the implications of data harvesting and the potential for user manipulation within virtual environments. Balancing user autonomy with data protection in the metaverse requires robust ethical analysis and the application of privacy laws to safeguard user rights. Read our article to learn more about cybersecurity threats in the evolving virtual environment.

Additionally, virtual environments may inadvertently promote discriminatory or harassing behaviours [4], necessitating ethical considerations to address such issues.


Dispute Resolution in the Metaverse

The unique characteristics of the Metaverse demand innovative dispute resolution mechanisms. Traditional legal remedies may not be well-suited for resolving disputes that arise within this virtual world.

Implementing alternative dispute resolution methods, such as virtual arbitration or mediation, could be more efficient and accessible for participants in the metaverse. Creating specialised dispute resolution frameworks for virtual environments is vital for fostering a fair and just metaverse ecosystem.

Developing dispute resolution mechanisms tailored to the metaverse requires legal creativity and forward-thinking. Implementing virtual arbitration, mediation, or AI-driven resolution tools can enhance efficiency and accessibility for resolving disputes in this digital space. Crafting a legal framework that accommodates the distinct attributes of the metaverse is essential for providing fair and just resolution to users.



As the Metaverse continues to evolve, it presents an array of intricate legal challenges that demand thoughtful and sophisticated analysis. Legal professionals must navigate the complexities surrounding virtual property, jurisdictional issues, smart contracts, ethical considerations, and dispute resolution to ensure equitable treatment for all participants in this dynamic digital realm. By referencing relevant case law, legislation, and legal opinions, legal practitioners can develop robust legal frameworks that protect users' rights and promote the responsible growth of the metaverse.


Interested in more articles relating to legal technology? Why not read our article "Will the legal sector embrace Artificial Intelligence"?



  1. Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act: [Accessed 23 July 2023].
  2. European Parliament Research Service (EPRS), 'Legal Aspects of Artificial Intelligence' (2020) Study for the European Parliament, PE 634.452, [Accessed 23 July 2023].
  3. GDPR Info, 'General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)' ( [Accessed 23 July 2023].
  4. Tynes BM, Rose CA, Hiss S, Umaña-Taylor AJ, Mitchell K, Williams D. Virtual Environments, Online Racial Discrimination, and Adjustment among a Diverse, School-Based Sample of Adolescents. Int J Gaming Comput Mediat Simul. 2016;6(3):1-16. doi: 10.4018/ijgcms.2014070101. PMID: 27134698; PMCID: PMC4851344.

Group of young people standing in a circle many a collective star with their fingers

Introducing a Unified Solution for Legal Document Management

You need the right tools to minimise the document admin you’re not aware you’re doing. Then you can get on with your actual work, your deep work, (not the preparation). Part Four


Throughout this series, we've discussed the nature of legal work, analysed the pros and cons of traditional paper bundling, and brought attention to the inadequacies of current legal document workflow management. Now, it’s time to shed light on a solution that seeks to remedy the complexities and inefficiencies inherent in legal documentation processes.

At the heart of the problem is the fact that legal workflow management tools are designed with a skewed focus, often prioritizing document production over usage. This results in a tool that is ineffective at best and counterproductive at worst, failing to simplify the processes it is supposed to support. Lawyers need a tool that enables them to manage, read, annotate, and engage with documents, rather than simply produce them.

Experts like Harvard Business Review and Forbes have stressed the importance of developing digital workflows that effectively streamline processes and encourage productivity. In the legal realm, this means developing a tool that isn't just about creating documents, but about enhancing a lawyer's interaction with them.

Moreover, current practices also involve bundling as a separate process – an unnecessary and time-consuming step that should be integrated into the workflow. After all, it's not just about producing the bundle; it's about working with it from the moment the first document enters the workflow to the moment the bundle is printed out.

The legal world has long cried out for a solution that encapsulates the entire document lifecycle, from creation to printing, with everything in between. A tool that streamlines and simplifies, without compromising on functionality or accessibility.

The solution to these issues is not far-fetched. Imagine a world where legal professionals can easily navigate and annotate their documents, manage their workflows more effectively, and have a seamless bundling process all within a single tool. It’s no longer a vision for the future, but a present reality.

Several thought leaders like Above the Law have recognized the need for legal technology that embraces this holistic approach, arguing that the future of legal work lies in digital tools that unify these processes.


Unveiling the Solution: Casedo

Enter Casedo. Casedo is a tool that is designed with the lawyer's workflow in mind. It is built to address the unique challenges of document management in the legal world, allowing users to read, annotate, and manage their documents all in one place.

Casedo does away with the concept of bundling as a separate process, integrating it as a part of the overall workflow. As such, you can work with your documents and bundles from the moment you receive the first document until the time comes to print the final product. This represents a revolutionary shift in the way we think about and interact with legal documents, eliminating unnecessary steps and making legal work more efficient and manageable.

Moreover, Casedo is designed specifically for reading and annotating documents. It is not just a tool for producing documents, but a tool for truly interacting with them, offering functionalities that empower lawyers to work with their documents in a more intuitive and effective manner.

In essence, Casedo is a unified solution that allows legal professionals to focus on what truly matters: delivering top-notch legal services. By simplifying the process of managing, reading, and annotating documents, and seamlessly integrating bundling into the workflow, Casedo facilitates the transition to a more efficient and effective legal practice.



It's clear that a shift in the way we manage legal documents is needed. The legal profession requires a tool that empowers them to effectively use and manage their documents, rather than just create them. Moreover, the process of bundling should be seamlessly integrated into the workflow, rather than treated as a separate task.

That solution is Casedo. Designed specifically for reading and annotating documents, Casedo does away with bundling as a separate process, wrapping all these necessities within a single tool. It's a streamlined solution from the moment the first document enters the workflow to when the bundle is printed out.

Legal technology: BAME at the Bar

Black Lives Matter in 2020 highlighted the disparity in our society and the legal profession is not exempt. An old boys club underpinned by uneven playing fields; the legal sector undeniably has a diversity problem. Naturally, this also extends to the legal technology industry.


Black and minority ethnic (BAME) groups and women are continue to be unrepresented in the legal technology industry. A study of racial diversity among founders of lawtech companies discovered that of 478 founders of lawtech companies in the US, only 26 were black or Latin. Within the lawtech industry in the UK, the same groups are also underrepresented. The UK employs more BAME individuals in its tech industry than any other sector, they are less likely to achieve leadership roles.

The issues in diversity within legal technology appear to stem from the barriers to the legal profession itself. Recent data reveals that only 21% of solicitors were from BAME backgrounds. Black lawyers are significantly underrepresented, making up 3% of all lawyers in England & Wales, a figure that has only risen by only 1% in the last six years.

The reality is equally bleak at the Bar. The latest Bar Standards Board (BSB) report on gender, ethnicity and social background of barristers suggests that diversity and inclusion figures have only marginally improved. Although the percentage of female QCs has increased since 2018, men still outnumber women with 61.3% of practising members identifying as male. The percentage of BAME practising barristers has increased by 0.6%. However, there are still only 13.6% BAME barristers at the Bar.

BAME individuals are also reported to have less representation in senior positions. The Diversity of the judiciary 2020 report suggests that only 8% of court judges and 12% of tribunal judges identified as BAME at 1st April 2020. The proportion of judges who identify as BAME is gradually progressing but remains considerably lower for senior-level court appointments than tribunals. .

A diverse legal sector can improve employee engagement, encourage understanding of differing perspectives, and attract a variety of divergent skill sets that can lead to innovation and promote creativity. As such, enhancing D&I in the legal field will inevitably bolster the lawtech industry as more creative ideas surface. A diverse workforce can offer unique styles, thinking and methodology, leading to better problem-solving models. By expanding the recruitment pool, the legal sector and in turn, legal technology, can only improve further.

For a profession responsible for the administration of justice, it is also crucial that it reflects the population it serves. Legal professionals in the industry must represent communities more closely if they are to trust in an independent and effective legal system. A diverse consumer of legal services will require a diverse legal profession to serve them. Thus, D&I will provide a better choice for the population and undeniably encourage potential clients to access legal services, resulting in a better consumer experience.

There is so much more that needs to be done. The question remains, how do we improve?


UPDATED 2023.05.23

Casedo v1.9 Release Announcement

Casedo v1.9 Release Announcement

UPDATE 2023.11.01 - We have taken the decision to take this version out of Beta as there remains a single issue affecting a low percentage of Windows users. The issue is not catastrophic and involves exporting to PDF. We believe the issue has been fixed, see the Release Notes for details.


UPDATE 2023.03.17 - Though many of our current users have switched to Casedo v1.9 without issue, we have found several low risk bugs in the software which we think need to be fixed before this version becomes the standard release. We've therefore taken the difficult decision to put this version back into beta. If you'd like to try Casedo v1.9.0 you can download the Mac version here or download the Windows version here.


Following on from the additional colour-tagging options in the last upgrade, Casedo is delighted to announce the release of the latest software upgrade. Casedo version 1.9 offers our customers four distinct new features which each add a new element to the already feature-rich toolset.


Export individual folders and documents

Casedo has been the go-to bundling tool for many lawyers for several years, and whilst the options for exporting an entire case are strong, including complex pagination features and feature-rich Table of Contents, until now there has been some frustration at the inability to export individual files and folders without mucking about with the Index first. You no longer need to - now your can simply right click on a document or folder (in the Index or the Desk Space) and export it as you would a bundle. For more information read this article.


Casedo Casefile lock to prevent opening of a Casefile by more than one user at a time, when saved on shared storage

Most of us have more that one computer, perhaps using a desktop at work and a laptop the rest of the time. We understand this, we're happy for licence holders to have Casedo installed on more than one computer (see the EULA for details). The convenient way to work with this set up is to save your Casedo casefiles in shared folders using services such as OneDrive, Dropbox, Google Drive, or on bespoke in-company systems.

This works well if you're the only one working on a casefile. However, until now it has been trickier with multiple users as there has been no way to know if the Casedo casefile is in use by a team member or assistant. This can lead Casedo to making multiple cloned copies of the same casefile.

To overcome this we have created a lock system that prevents a Casedo casefile being opened by more than one user concurrently, and which tells the locked-out user who is currently using the casefile. Implementation of this has necessitated a slightly different experience when Casedo is opened for the first time after installation, users now need to add contact details. To know how this new feature works in more detail read this article, and to find out how 'opening Casedo for the first time' has changed, read this.


Import failure warning

Sometimes documents won't import into Casedo as expected. Sometimes Casedo doesn't recognise the file. Whilst there are workarounds for PDFs and Word Documents, it would be great to know when this occurs, especially if you are importing multiple documents at a time. Casedo v1.9 includes a failed-to-import notification so that you know when this has happened and can take steps to fix it. For more information, take a look at this article.


Undo for moving documents in the Index and Desk Space

Whilst to date annotations can be added and removed in Casedo, mistaken movement in the Index and Desk Space on the left hand side of the Casedo workspace could not. We've now added CTRL+Z (Windows) / CMD+Z (Mac) to undo up to five movement actions in both the Index and Desk Space. This is a huge help when you accidently move a folder full of documents to the wrong place! For more information, read this.


Casedo v1.9

We feel that the above four features add substantially to Casedo's overall offer - helping people manage multiple documents in a single space, enabling them to organise, annotate, think, advise and pick up where they left off simply and easily. In addition to these obvious changes, we have improved some back end processes. This includes the basic importing feature, which is continually improving, thanks to diligent users sharing their failed document imports with us to fix.

For further details, take a look at the Release Notes.

Woman in front of a laptop frustrated by her workflow management

Current legal document workflow management isn’t working

You need the right tools to minimise the document admin you’re not aware you’re doing. Then you can get on with your actual work, your deep work, (not the preparation). Part Three


In this series I’ve been trying to break down legal document workflows. I want to show how legal professionals could minimise their document admin time by choosing the right tools. By doing so, they can improve their workflow management, cut occupational stress and improve productivity.

In the first article in the series, I attempted to get to the heart of the actual work that legal professionals do, rather than the top line answer of “I’m a lawyer”, because only in knowing that could you successfully choose the tools you need.

In the second part of the series it may have looked as if I’d headed off at a tangent by concentrating on paper bundles. However, my premise was that we have a tendency to assume legacy ways of working are no longer fit for purpose. That we have nothing to learn from them. I wanted to show that the paper bundle has for a long time (centuries?) been an excellent tool for a variety of reasons. It continues to be particularly good for focused work, even with the admitted downsides of physical production, replication and archive. My argument being that ‘digital’ bundles, such as they are, tend to have solved the downsides of paper bundles without managing to adequately bring on board the upsides of paper bundles in terms of efficiency and productivity.   At the end of the last article, I touched on how you might now be interacting with your papers. In this third part of the series I elaborate on this theme.


Why your current document workflow isn’t working

We can’t improve our productivity if we’re not aware that the way we work is inefficient. The extra steps you take to get your work done are not just administrative but are a workflow management and time management issue. Let’s take the paper bundle as the base case for document working, and step to digital from there.

Paper bundles: the good, the bad and the ugly

In the last part of this series, we touched on the good side of working with paper bundles

  • the ability to focus, to work through documents by utilising non-linear reading (jumping tab to tab)
  • to pick up where you left off
  • to have a ready archive at the end of the process.

The downsides are obvious and common to many legacy physical tools and workflows, be they collaboration tools (of which paper bundles are one), or not. Paper bundles are

  • time consuming to create
  • time consuming to append
  • extremely time consuming to replicate
  • high risk in terms of loss / damage

The above negative aspects of bundles above have ‘digitise my workflow’ written all over them. And these processes have, by and large, beet successfully digitised.


What’s wrong with current legal document workflow management


1. Case & document workflow management systems are great for managing documents not using them

Document management is hugely important to any business, particularly in law where client data is the bread and butter of the business. But in terms of understanding and digesting the information at hand, ‘document management’ is unhelpful. Legal professionals shouldn’t be ‘managing’ documents, that is for support staff etc. to deal with. Legal professionals need to be using documents as part of their work.   The current issue is that ‘document management’, by which I mean identification, storage, risk management etc, has dominated over the ability to use documents. For the sake of identification and good record management, documents are stored securely and individually. The focus is to not lose documents, in other words to manage documents, and to be able to identify them easily so they can be found and retrieved quickly and then used. This is great for a database of records (whatever those records are). However, it is very poor workflow when it comes to using those documents. You get a better sense of how inefficient this is for using the documents for work by looking at the hard copy analogy. If we imagine that in a paper-bundle, instead of putting all the relevant documents into a single paper bundle, you bundled each document individually. Not only that, but also bound them, titled them and tagged them individually. Follow that you kept them on a shelf so that any time you wanted to look at the document you had to get up from your desk to go and fetch it. If you needed to digest 58 documents relating to a case, you’d have to get 58 different documents off the shelf (and put them back at the end of the day). This cumbersome workflow doesn’t even look at the question of how you would signpost between documents?


2. PDF Readers and Editors are great for producing documents, not reading them

For PDFs we look to PDF Readers and Editors. If you are faced with emails, PDFs and Word documents then you need to Alt + Tab (switch) back and forth between them, and even if you had all your documents in PDF format, how are you going to open those 58 documents (in the example above)? In 58 tabs across the top of your screen? How are you going to link between them, let alone read them. Non-linear reading becomes an exercise in will power with workflow like this! What if you are technically proficient enough to create a single bookmarked PDF of all the documents you need? That’s great, a bit like producing a professionally bound hard copy document. But what happens if, as is bound to happen, you need to add a document at the last minute, recreating that magnificent monolithic document is a long and tedious process.   None of this is an issue with a paper bundle, except maybe the cumbersome addition of new documents.


3. Creating a bundle is a separate process

And then given how you work with documents, how do you create an electronic (or even paper) bundle if you need to go to arbitration or to court? You need to create a ‘bundle’ from scratch. Back in the paper days you would already have a bundle to hand, you had begun to make it from day one of the case. It built up over time, and then, when it needed to be shared with the other side or the court, you had to make a clean copy, but at the very least you had a copy to clone. But now, none of this. Not only does one spend a huge amount of time opening up individual files, and having to search across them individually. Making links between them is tiresome, and making a bundle another chore in itself. It’s as if all the benefits of the paper bundle have been taken away just to save time and money in the creation of a paper bundle. One set of inefficiencies have been replaced with another.


The Solution

This is the current situation, and many are yet to notice that this is even a problem. It so ingrained is it into our workflows and workflow management systems. However, it doesn’t need to be, as I will show in the final part of this series.

OCR - convert pdf to text with Casedo

Convert PDF to text on the fly with OCR

Right now, new technology is making it easier for lawyers to work with digitised documents. Most lawyers are familiar with pdfs: the standard file format for storing scanned documents, as well as for exchanging them with other parties. On the flip side, if you have ever tried to edit, copy or search through text in such a file, you’ll know just how frustrating pdfs can be to work with.


Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology changes all of this. Designed with lawyers in mind, Casedo’s OCR feature enables you to convert pdf to text on the flay and so makes unreadable pdfs readable, allowing you to manipulate, search and extract text, just like you would with a Word document.

Here’s a closer look at how OCR works, and why this can mean a welcome boost in productivity and reduction in stress levels for lawyers, paralegals and support staff alike.


What’s the problem with scanned pdfs for lawyers?

There are good reasons why pdfs (portable document files) are used frequently within law firms. Originally developed more than two decades ago by Adobe, this file format lets you easily convert both electronic and paper documents into accurate digital versions of the original. Pdf documents are easy to share and to view, thanks to Adobe’s free-to-use Reader plugin. The files themselves are also relatively small, which makes it easier to send via email, and also makes it possible to store vast volumes of scanned documents on the firm’s hard drive.

Scanning and converting a document into a pdf creates an electronic image of the original. The file is non-editable, which can be useful from a security perspective when you need to show that a document is a true copy of the original. However, this characteristic also stops you from annotating, copying, searching through and extracting the text: bad news when you need to work on the document.


What does OCR software do?

Optical Character Recognition software changes the way your device processes pdf files. By converting pdf to text it enables the device to actually read the text, rather than treating it as an image.

For you, this means the document is transformed into an editable, machine-readable format.

How can I put OCR software to work?

Here are some of the many situations where OCR can prove especially valuable in law firms and chambers:

Post-disclosure investigation

As part of the disclosure and inspection process, you receive a large volume of the other party’s scanned bank statements in pdf format. As part of your investigations, you want to isolate all transactions relating to a particular payee. Rather than printing out the statements and examining them line-by-line with a highlighter, an OCR feature lets you do a text search for the payee and identify all relevant entries in an instant.

Expert evidence

Attached to the likes of medical and engineering reports, experts will often attach reference documents, such as research reports and articles from academic journals. These documents can often be dense in nature. Nevertheless, it is generally important to give them consideration for anything that might be especially relevant to the actual expert report and to your client’s case as a whole.

Once you convert PDF to text, OCR allows you to search for the segments of these documents that are likely to be most relevant. It also allows you to easily copy sections and paste them into opinions, correspondence and pleadings.



One of the barristers’ chambers you frequently instruct has prepared a handy guide to tax law changes and has sent you a scanned version in pdf format. Some of the contents are directly relevant to a number of your cases. OCR enables you to annotate the document and extract useful sections and charts so you can add them to your casenote file on your case management system.

What are the benefits of OCR for lawyers?

Why should I use this feature to convert PDF to text? OCR can help you in the following ways:


By effectively ‘unlocking’ scanned documents, OCR removes the (frustrating!) requirement of having to retype sections of text contained in scanned documents.

For many of the scanned files lawyers deal, only certain sections of them are specifically relevant to the litigation in hand. As we explored in our article, How lawyers can reduce stress at work with legal tech, as much as 20% of a working day can be wasted in searching for the information you need to get the job done.(1) Trying to identify the relevant parts of huge files can be a big part of this. By letting you search for and then highlight specific areas, you can cut out a lot of this waste.



This can be especially relevant when you have large volumes of financial records to analyse. When assessing text manually, even the most experienced lawyer can miss something important. With OCR enabled, you can use the search function in full knowledge that nothing relevant will be missed.



OCR makes it quicker to work with scanned documents, freeing up your time to devote to more valuable activities such as wider case strategy and building stronger client relationships. What’s more, because it creates less scope for error, there is often greater scope for delegating tasks such as document checking to more junior staff.


How to use Casedo software to convert PDF to text

With Casedo, you can now make unreadable scanned documents readable by following these simple steps:

  • Import the scanned document into the Casedo workspace
  • Right-click the imported file and select ‘Recognise text’
  • The software will then process the text (this can take a minute or two, depending on the size of your pdf)
  • Once the OCR feature has processed the text, you can search and edit it as you would a standard text document.

If you have one or more scanned documents and you want to search for specific words, you can simply import them all into Casedo, apply the OCR feature and search them together or individually. Request a Free Casedo 30 Day Trial today, and how easy it is for yourself.



  1. Noi, D. (2018). Do workers still waste time searching for information?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Nov. 2022].


UPDATED: 2022.11.11